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Moroccan manufacturing sector at the turn of the century : Results of the firm analysis and competitiveness survey...

Auteur : Zeufack Albert, Fafchamps Marcel, El Khadri Latifa, ...[et al.]
Collectivite Auteur : Moroccan Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Energy and Mines, World Bank
Année de Publication : 2000
Type : Rapport
Thème : Industrie
Couverture : Maroc

Résumé/Sommaire :

Morocco’s macroeconomic and trade reforms since the mid-1980s increased

its integration with the global economy and led to faster growth for a time.

These macroeconomic reforms, however, need to be sustained and complemented

with a "second generation" of more institutional reforms at the micro level – if rapid

growth is to continue.

At the macro level, the authorities have allowed the real exchange rate to appreciate

during the 1990s, while the real exchange rate of other emerging market economies has


This alone would put Morocco at a competitive disadvantage. In addition,

there are problems in different aspects of the investment climate that make it difficult

for firms to start up and enhance their productivity.

Notwithstanding progress in several areas, notably customs, Law and order,

Stability of business relations, flexibility of labor relations, Morocco is characterized

by heavy bureaucracy and red tape, making it difficult to start businesses. The financial

sector is inefficient and provides little credit support, at high cost, to firms. Parts

of infrastructure are good, but there are deficiencies in particular sectors and

regional imbalances in quality of power and transport infrastructure. The education

level of the workforce is low and firms make little effort to train workers to

higher levels. At current wage levels, Moroccan manufacturing cannot sustain the

strategy to rely on low-tech, low- quality, low-skills content products. The country

has to move progressively to higher value added/skill intensive hence high wages

products in the future. To achieve this objective, the Government, industry associations

and individual firms should work in partnership to lay the foundations of a knowledge

based manufacturing sector. It is beyond the scope of this report to make specific recommendations

– on how to improve the education system or strengthen finance. But the

findings do point to the need to have a coordinated macro/micro approach to improving competitiveness.

A shift in macro policies would provide immediate help to the manufacturing sector. Beyond that,

the government really needs to adopt a "service mentality" to provide a better environment for firms

to start up and expand – both foreign firms and domestic ones. Some of the important investment

climate improvements that are needed at the micro level are: Deepen the effort to reduce red tape

and bureaucratic harassment, in order to make it easier to start and operate firms; Promote a reform

of the financial sector that ensures more competition and better services; Continued upgrading of

infrastructure in telecom, power, and transport (which in many cases traces back to having a good

regulatory framework for private investment and competition in these sectors); and Strengthening

of education -- both the basic system and vocational/technical education including firm and industry

training programs

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