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Entry Modes for Franchise Expansion : The Case of Morocco

Auteur : Negré Claude, Bennaghmouch Saloua
Date de publication : 23/11/2013
Type : Actes de congrès / Séminaire / Atelier
Thème : Economie de services
Couverture : Maroc

Résumé/Sommaire :

Academic literature on international franchising focuses on market selection (Alon Shoham, 2010) and especially in emerging countries (Welsh, Alon, Falbe, 2006), entry modes (Alon , 1999) and standardization / adaptation concern (Kaufman, Eroglu, 1999).
The case of Morocco seemed particularly interesting to study both in terms of its attractiveness that it seems to exert on international franchisors and its franchise development modes.
The Franchise has been registered for fifteen years among alternatives of networking development of businesses on Moroccan territory and this in most sectors of trade and services.
This article illustrates, from existing literature, a contrast of franchising in Morocco and highlights a strong influence of the number of brands of foreign origin located mainly in master franchise but more often developed domestically through wholly-owned chains and a strong geographic, urbanite and capitalistic concentration.
This work focuses on the choice of implementation as well as the issue of local experimentation and adaptation of the concept of franchising through a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven brands of French origin located in Morocco with at least five units. The rewritten perceptions are those of the franchisors and tell the story of the implementation of their internationalization strategy concerning Morocco.
It also seemed appropriate in the context of this exploratory approach to deal specifically with AKSAL, a diversified Moroccan group that could be called a "multi-master franchisee", with a portfolio of 20 foreign brands in fashion, luxury, home furnishings, beauty, restaurants, department stores and specialty stores. From the interview with the director of the group's strategic alliances, this part of the article reports strategic options for the selection of brands and their mode of spatial development. The qualitative approach and case study were chosen for the wealth of their teachings (Perrigot, Basset, Cliquet, 2011).
The two approaches, one focusing on decision-making processes of international franchisors and the other on a local operator, a multi-master franchisee of different brands, suggest the existence of two types of franchise development prevailing in Morocco. A first group of networks would be a follower of an alliance based on a contract type master franchise agreement with a partner of a strong local stature, having already recorded a number of achievements with substantial development of franchise chains of foreign origin. Despite the qualification of master franchise, this does not involve the use of the franchise by the master franchisee which could develop its own units on a domestic level. Another group of networks might more conventionally close the master franchise contracts involving the implementation of a real local franchise chain.
The usual question of the limits of standardization or adaptation of the concept as well as the forms of distribution does not offer a radical response to the internationalization of a franchise concerning Morocco. The study refers to situations largely related to situational factors but the main lesson is a necessary re-testing prior to local development.
305 franchise networks or 24% of French origin brands listed in the territory are developing abroad. At the same time 220 franchise networks of foreign origin or 14.90% of retailers operating in the territory are developing in France (fff, 2011).
These figures suggest that a certain performance of French brands outside borders lack an understanding of the decision-making process in the origin or success factors with overall value.
The choice of host countries, the decision-making option for internationalization, the determinants of implementation mode, arbitrations standardization / adaptation and the continuity of relationships are poorly understood.
The literature on this subject focuses on typologies (clusters) of host countries of the franchise on the basis of economic, environmental, demographic, cultural and political (Alon Shoham, 2010), entry modes (Alon, 1999) (Duniack-Smith, 2003), (Negre, 2006) to the standardization / adaptation trade-off (Ryans, Lotz, 1997), related to managerial practices (Shane, 2005) and emerging markets (Allix-Desfautaux, 2006) (Welsh, Alon, Falbe, 2006) (Chanut, Garbi, 2011).
This exploratory work attempts to shed light on the following questions :
- What is the attractiveness of Morocco for foreign brands?
- What is the importance of located foreign networks?
- With whom?
- Under what legal and financial terms?
- What is the decision-making process of the partners?
- Are the developed concepts suitable? In what proportions? Were they successful?
The first part is devoted to the study of literature and examples of brands to describe the different types of contractual relationships used by franchisors to develop their business overseas and the process of choosing a mode of internationalization.
The second part treats, after a reminder of the economic reality of the franchise on the Moroccan territory and its attractiveness factors and impeding, through an exploratory approach, the methods of implementation of seven brands of French franchise on Morocco. An interview excerpt with AKSAL, a Moroccan group diversified in equipment of the concepts of the person and of the house of foreign origins completes the understanding of the formation of an international franchise relationship through the point of view of a local partner.

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